Monday, March 28, 2011

does NASA really landed on moon?

On 20 July, we will celebrate 41 years of landing humans on the Moon. But probably many who do not know that there is a theory that is often called the great moonhoax theory which says that man never landed on the moon. NASA cleverly makes photos and footage moon landing in a studio in Nevada. Is that statement true? Whether landing on the moon is just aIn May 1961, President Kennedy said a historic speech, "I believe this nation That Should commit Itself. To Achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and uterus Returning safely to the Earth ... "

On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong set foot on the moon for the first time Kennedy's dream fulfilled. But in 1974, someone named Bill Kaysing published a book entitled "We Never Went to the Moon: America's Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle." Saying that Americans had faked the moon landing. The result of investigations based on the existing discrepancy in the records and photographs released by NASA. 

Since then, the moon landing conspiracy theory was born (the great moonhoax / moonlanding hoaxes). Some books written after the book Kaysing, proposed the same idea. After that the books or sites that defend the landing on the moon are also emerging. However, the defense was never discussed as many conspiracy theories. 

This time, I will present the answers to charges of forgery. Indeed many of the questions posed by Kaysing et al, but to load all these questions will be writing a tedious because it contains technical matters relating to the world of aeronautics and physics. So I selected 10 questions most frequently discussed in cyberspace and provide the answer. Here are 10 questions the following answers. 

Van Allen radiation belt 

Q: To reach the moon, the astronauts have to cross the Van Allen radiation belt that is almost impossible.

A: The Van Allen Belt was first discovered by James Van Allen in 1958. Belt is composed of particles and cosmic radiation are captured by Earth's magnetic field. 

According to the proponents of conspiracy theories, will not be possible through the radiation belts. However, other data showed. NASA has considered everything before flying humans to the moon. They invested time and money that does little to investigate this risk. Finally they concluded that radiation was only carrying minimal risk. It took about an hour for Apollo to get through that radiation belt. The total radiation dose received by astronauts from radiation turned out to be only 1 brake. A person may experience pain when the doses of 100-200 rem and death at doses above 300 rem. 

Moreover, the belt stretches across 40 degrees Latitude and 20 degrees above and below the magnetic equator. While the Apollo spacecraft that carries only move in the position of 30 degrees. So the astronauts is only exposed to minimal radiation.

The stars in the sky 

Q: In the photographs landing on the moon, no visible stars in the sky. This indicates that the photo was fake.

A: This question is the easiest question to answer. First, the astronauts to the moon not to take photos of the stars. Because the camera was set with a short exposure to avoid the pictures of over exposure. The bright moon's surface also requires the camera is set like that. With a setting like that, the stars will not be caught on camera. However, the surface of the moon will be captured clearly.

The shadow that leads to a different direction

Q: In the photographs the moon landing, some photos show the shadow that is not uniform. This suggests the existence of more than one source of lighting, such as in a studio. Is not the sun is the only source of light on the moon? 

Photo below shows the shadow of the rock and the Lunar Lander spacecraft pointing in different directions.

A: The surface of the moon covered with craters, rocks and mounds, not a flat surface. Therefore, light touch uneven surfaces it will be seen turned in any direction, depending on surface conditions. If the surface rises, then shadows will look shorter, if the surface is decreased, then the shadow will stretch. If we take a picture from the top, perpendicular, then the shadow will be seen pointing in the same direction. However, because the photos were taken not from the top, then the shadow will look toward different. See example photos below.

Moreover If NASA memalsukannya by making a recording in the studio with more than one light source (light studio), then the shadow of one object will appear more than one. 

Edwin Aldrin's footprints 

Q: Edwin Aldrin leaving a footprint that is so perfect as if the moon's surface has a mixed dust of the ground water. If the dry lunar surface, how could trail it was so perfectly formed, much less gravity months only one sixth of the earth. People weighing 200 kg would not be able to leave a trail like that.

A: Dust months consist of particles formed from a collision with an asteroid-collision and mikrometeorit. Any form of dust particles have rough surfaces and jagged. This causes the footprints can be formed well without water. Moreover, most of the lunar surface consists of silica, a unique material that can stick to each other and form long molecular chains. On Earth, such traces can not be created because there was a process of oxidation, where oxygen would soon fill the molecular chain fragments, but on the moon, there is no oxygen so perfect footprints can be created. 

About weight and gravity, is heavy on the moon will be 1 / 6 the weight of the earth. But we know that the Mass is always the same everywhere throughout the universe (Newton's formula, weight = mass x gravity). This is what causes Aldrin can make a trail like that. 

Flag flying 

Q: If there is no wind on the moon, why in the photo, the flag fluttering? 

A: Actually this question is a bit strange. How do we see a flag fluttering from a photo? The answer to this question is so easy. NASA has been thinking about it. They wanted a photo of the heroic with the American flag clearly visible, so they put a small horizontal pipe above the pole. This led to the flag pole inverted L-shaped. The flag was restrained by a horizontal pipe and create the effect of wrinkles on the flag fly high.

Take a look at the photo below. The first photo shows Aldrin's hand is a salute to the American flag. You can see the tip of his finger sticking out slightly in front of his helmet. In the second photo, her hands are lowered. Sembulan in front of the helmet was not visible. But the position of the flag, and the lining together. That means the flag is not flying.

The crater caused by a NASA spacecraft 

Q: Is not the Lunar Lander out power to 10,000 pounds, why at the time of landing and departure, there was no crater is created in the month. Is not that much power would be enough to make a hole, like a helicopter which landed in the desert.

A: The answer is because the activity Lunar Lander mostly occurred before landing on the moon. Thousands of feet above the surface of the moon, Lunar Lander semburannya reduce the strength to live up to only 3000 pounds. Offset strength again when only a few feet above the surface of the moon. So could not have formed craters on the lunar surface. Moreover, the surface of the moon does not only consist of dust alone, but a hard material called the Lunar Regolith. So of course there will be no crater is formed.

the same  Background 
  Q: Two video clips showing the exact same two hills. In fact NASA says that the two clips were taken at two different locations.

A: This is a mistake made by the believers of conspiracy theories. They took the clip from the documentary film that aired on TV. The documentary was using the wrong clip. This error aired on TV and her music is taken by believers of conspiracy theories.

Stone with the letter "C" on it 

Q: Photos of the mission of Apollo 16 shows a stone with the letter "C" on it. Is this perhaps is a sign of studio property? 

See below the photo on the left stone.

A: This question has been investigated and answered by a website who investigate anomalies months. Point C is the result of a hair caught in the paper when the photo was processed. Images are processed at the next does not show that letter. The conspiracy theory believers take this photo and make it a weapon to attack NASA. 

Crosshair that disappears in the photo 

Q: In some photos, see "crosshair" disappeared behind the object. As if NASA manipulate the image.

A: Cross hair is a plus sign commonly seen in the lens of a camera or a video to show middle position. Some photos showing the crosshair disappears behind the objects can be answered easily. The answer is the camera resolution. Intense lighting with low-resolution camera that causes the crosshair to disappear when touching the object light. This is a common symptom in photographic techniques. NASA Images processed with high resolution, of course it does not disappear crosshair. 

Objects that should look dark 

Q: In some photos, like an astronaut who fell from the Lunar Lander, that astronauts should not be seen at all as it is covered by the Lunar Lander, but instead showed pictures tesebut incredible detail clearly. Is this not evidence that the photograph was false?

A: The answer is simple. Because the moon's surface reflects light and this light provides extra illumination to the object. It is estimated that the moon's surface reflects light at 340 lumens per square foot. This is equivalent to incandescent lights as bright as 35 watts. This light will reflect the results of the shooting.

In addition to answers to the questions above, there are other arguments that support the truth of landing on the moon. For example, NASA not only once to send humans to the moon. NASA sent Apollo 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 toward the moon. Apollo 13 failed to land but managed to come home safely (maybe you've never seen the movie). If NASA faked the Apollo 11 landing, why should they be sent again until the Apollo 17 mission. 

 Yet after the Apollo 11, the human interest of months have been reduced further. Many people who believe Moonhoax theory after Neil Armstrong say why there was no landing on the moon. This is a misleading statement. Total real astronauts who landed and walked on the moon there were 12 astronauts (2 astronauts for each Apollo). After 1972 no more missions to the moon since the U.S. experienced a recession that caused a few times NASA's budget is cut by the U.S. government. 

In addition, the astronauts brought samples of moon rock weighing 382 pounds with more than 2,000 separate samples. Samples were currently studied by scientists around the world. It is impossible NASA moon capable of making artificial stone stone-month recall has unique characteristics which he formed in an environment without oxygen. Until now, there are only 25 samples possessed meteorite month (outside of 382 kg of samples brought home an astronaut). And rock has been compared and proved to have the same characteristics.

At the time of the launch of Apollo 11 mission, there are about 3,500 journalists from around the world at the Kennedy Space Center following launch process until landing on the moon to return to Earth, NASA how to deceive journalists so much? Moreover, more than 400,000 employees working on the Apollo 11 project nearly 10 years. How NASA employees cheat so much? or how NASA could bring 400,000 people to fake the moon landing conspiracy? 

Indeed conspiracy theories spread throughout the world is due to act of one person, Bill Kaysing. And somehow, sites and blogs around the world have never looked at the answers from NASA or independent scientists who defend the landing. 

Now the important question, whether I believe humans have landed on the moon. The answer: YES! 

Not because I defend America and its technology, but because I believe in the power of a dream. The success of America is not the success of a nation, but the success of the human race entirely. Neil Armstrong was right when he said "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind." A small step for a man, a big leap for all mankind. 

Bill Kaysing and Kennedy were both staring at the moon at night. Staring at the moon, Kaysing said to himself, "Out of my reach!" While Kennedy said aloud, "We're going to touch the surface." Maybe one day when we dare to dream big, we will see the Indonesian flag planted on the Moon, and we will not say anymore "Like pungguk miss the moon." 

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