Saturday, May 21, 2011

How Stonehenge built?

In ancient site location Wiltshire, United Kingdom, there is a mysterious monument that has long been the object of debate and controversy. Monument called Stonehenge is composed of giant stones arranged neatly. How monument was built? By whom? and for what? Is it true that the monument was built by giants or aliens?

What makes this monument so confusing is the fact that the monument was established by a culture that has no historical records. This adds to the mystery aspect of Stonehenge itself. 

Stonehenge monument which has a diameter of 90 meters is located in Wiltshire, 13 miles from Salisbury. This monument is one of the most famous megalithic monument in the world. Some authors believe that this monument was built by the aliens, others believe that this monument was built by supernatural powers. According to them, impossible for the human past with the technology purbanya able to build a monument to such a big and complicated. 


Can we duplicate this kind of monument building with makeshift technology? 

In this paper, I will tell a brief history of Stonehenge and new theories about the purpose of establishment and the way construction. At least, there is an alternative view than the theory of supernatural or alien. 

History-making Stonehenge 

 Although there are several theories vary, archaeologists generally agree that the monument was first established in 3500 BC in several phases. 

In the year 3500 BC, the semi-nomadic people called the Windmill Hill people (3500-2600 BC) who inhabit the territory Salisbury began to build a monument. Construction was originally started by making 56 holes forming a circle formation. The hole is then given the name of Aubrey Hole since it was first discovered by John Aubrey. Then, the first stone called the Heel Stone as high as 4.9 meters placed at the entrance to these formations. 

Several hundred years later, the Beaker people (2600-2510 BC) bring 80 blocks of bluestone rocks, each of which weighs about 4 tons from a mine in the mountain Prescelly a distance of about 240 miles. 80 blocks of stone, called megaliths are then arranged to form two concentric circles.

For information, called bluestone here does not refer to the terms of geology. This term is used to refer to foreign rocks that did not come from that location. In the case of Stonehenge, bluestone rocks used were of the type Preseli Dolerite Spotted is harder than granite. 

After preparation of bluestone, the construction of the exterior of the monument began to work by Wessex People (2600-2510 BC). This time, the architects are using 30 stone giant. The stones, called Sarsen weighs each about 25 tons with a height of about 4 meters and is expected to be brought from Marlborough Downs is located about 20 miles from the location. 

Pertanyaaannya is how they took that big stone from a considerable distance? Then, if they got him, how do they enforce it and stacked stone? 

But before we go in there, let's look at some theories about who built it and for what purpose this monument was built. 

Merlin Theory  

In the 12th century, the British historian Geoffrey of Monmouth named wrote a book called "Historia Regum Britanniae" (History of the kings of England). In that book he presented the famous legend of King Arthur and an explanation of how Stonehenge was first built. According to Geoffrey, bluestone is used to build Stonehenge actually comes from Africa where the giants who live in the past to keep these rocks because of its healing abilities. 

The giant rocks and then bring it towards the mysterious mountain Killaraus in Ireland where they assemble into a giant circle. So, there the rocks were located for some time. 

When the king of England who named Aurelius Ambrosius want to create a memorial for the fallen soldier-perajuritnya, magician Merlin advised him to use the stones. The proposal was approved, and Merlin uses his magic power and remove the stones and bringing them to Salisbury by sea. 

This theory combines aspects of British legend with supernatural powers Merlin the wizard. Although interesting, but researchers had never thought seriously of this theory. 

Roman Temple  

In 1620, an eccentric British architect named Inigo Jones was ordered by the king of England, James I, to document the structure, and history of Stonehenge. In 1655, three years after the death of Jones, a daughter named John Webb published a book called "Remarkable Antiquity of Great Britain, Vulgarly Called Stone-Heng, Restored." This book describes the documentation comes from the notes left by Inigo Jones. 

In the book mentioned that the real Stonehenge is a Tuscan-style temple, founded by the Romans during their occupation in Britain in the 1st century until the 5th century. The temple is called to honor Coelus, one of the Roman gods. 

However, this theory soon received many objections from other authors because of age monuments believed to far exceed the period of Roman rule in Britain. 

Places of worship of the Druids

Another interesting theory comes from Dr.William Stukley, a doctor who doubles as a researcher of ancient ruins. Dr.Stukley is also one of the leading members of the British Freemasons. In 1740, he published a book that tries to explain the origins of Stonehenge. 

According to him, in the year 460 BC, Britain was visited by numerous pilgrims from the Middle East, possibly the nation Finisia, who had lived in the land of Canaan conquered by the Israelites. These pilgrims who founded the religion of the Druids who then build Stonehenge as a place of worship. 

However, once again, this theory is not appropriate to the age of Stonehenge are believed to far beyond the Druids. 

Place of observation space objects  

This theory was put forward by Sir John Lockyer. He is a renowned British astronomer who discovered the element helium. In 1901, he wrote a paper that assumes that some part of Stonehenge, called the Heel Stone, at first parallel to the Summer Solstice (longest day of the year). Lockyer therefore assume that this monument may have been used by ancient astronomers to observe space objects. 

In 1965, the theory is reinforced by the American astronomer Gerald Hawkins, who by using the computer managed to find that 165 points on the structure of Stonehenge is related to the movement of the sun and moon. He proposed the theory that Stonehenge is probably the ancient computers that are used to predict lunar eclipses.

However, this theory is not accurate because by referring to the assumption Lockyer, Stonehenge should be built in the year 1800 BC. It is not appropriate to the age of Stonehenge is much older. 

Places of worship the bronze Another theory put forward by Sir John Lubbock, an influential British archaeologists in the 19th century. Lubbock is the archaeologist who first coined the term Paleolithic and Neolithic. In his book, published in 1865, "Prehistoric Times as Illustrated by Ancient Remains and the Manners and Customs of Modern savages", he points out the similarities between Stonehenge with other monolithic structure in the world, especially those found in temples in India. 

Similar to the theory of Druid worship, Lubbock believe that this place really is a place of worship is established in the bronze. This is also confirmed by the discovery of a number of equipment that is derived from the bronze near the site of Stonehenge. 

Remarkably, Lubbock managed to accurately determine the age of Stonehenge, and he also correctly predicted that the monument was built in a very long period. 

Places of healing 

 In recent years, there are new theories about this mysterious monument. This is because the skulls found near the site. On the remains of the skull that was found, there are some signs, such as skull accidentally opened. This sign shows the operating procedures of the head concerned. 

Based on these findings, Prof.Timothy Darvill of Bournemouth University and Professor. Geofrrey Wainwright, proposed the theory that these monuments may have been used as the location of healing for the sick, a kind of primeval Lourdes period. 


Still based on the discovery of a skeleton at Stonehenge, Prof. Mike Parker Pearson filed this theory. He himself has studied this monument since 1998. 

Prof. Pearson found that in the year 2600 - 2400 BC there is a settlement near Stonehenge. He believes that Stonehenge has been used by people such as kuburun mass settlement. Writing in the Washington Post in 2007, he referred to this monument as "the biggest cemetery in those days." 

At this time, the theory of places of worship and burial theory is the theory most widely accepted by researchers. 

How did they build it?

 Well, now we go to the main mystery, that is how they build it? 

As I said, due to its mysterious, this monument has become the subject of long debate about how to manufacture. Based on knowledge that is known now, it seems unlikely that this building was founded by a man in those days because there was no technology known to transport or set up large stones. 

Looking at this fact, some authors believe that this building was founded by aliens. This theory was first popularized by Erich von Daniken, author of "Chariots of the Gods" which was published in 1968. According to him, the astronauts of the past (aliens) who visited the earth in the past had a role in the development of many megalithic structures around the world, including Stonehenge. Supporting argument is that Stonehenge is a circular shape, just like an alien spacecraft. 

Of course no one can prove this theory. Moreover, it is possible our understanding of past technology was not adequate enough so that we are "forced" to see an alternative spiritual or alien. 

However, in recent years, in fact there are several theories that could explain about how Stonehenge was built. 

This theory consists of two parts. The first is how to establish and raise such boulders. While the second is
how to transport large stones to the location of a place far enough.

Two under this theory deals with how to uphold and lift big stones: 

Wally Wallington and the principle of leverage One method that is quite interesting is the method proposed by Wally Wallington, a carpenter from Michigan. As an experienced carpenter for 35 years, Wally has found a way to move heavy objects and using only large timber. The secret is leverage or leverage. To move a large rock, Wally makes a point of wood with particular characteristics. When a big stone placed on it, the stone was easily moved.

Wally says that the methods it uses may be similar to the method used by Edward Leedskalnin to build Coral Castle. Even Wally claims, if he has the resources and enough time, he could build a pyramid without the use of advanced technology.
To establish a large stone, Wally just use a lot of pieces of wood used as a booster in the middle. In this way, he can not enforce a large stone in less than a day.
To find out more details, you can see the footage below.

(Youtube link)
You can also find out more about Wally by visiting the website
Appointment with wooden wheels lift If we are accustomed to thinking with ancient technology, we can find many creative ways to make monuments like Stonehenge. An engineer named Nick Weegenaar have a theory how to lift the large stone and put it on two stone. He proposed the theory of lifting equipment with wooden wheels, aka Litho Lift.
See the picture below:

By moving the giant wheel, the automatic boulder tied to it can be lifted and placed on the two stones which have stood. Currently, Nick is working on the wheel model to prove his theory. Although not yet practiced, but some engineers who have seen the design is believed that the mechanism could work well.
In addition to Wally and Nick theory that deals with establishing and lifted giant stones, these two other theories about how to transport it:
Transportation to the basket limb 

The theory associated with pangangkutan stone was first put forward by the engineer named Garry Lavin. According to him, the architects of Stonehenge may have moved the rocks by using a basket of branches that are used to wrap those big rocks. This method has been practiced and can be done.
According to Garry: "I always thought that bringing the big rocks to the location of the monument is impossible because of friction with the ground. However, in reality, the technology to do so are always around them."
Cart This branch was also able to float on the water. Thus, workers could carry the rocks via a river. In this experiment, Garry managed to move a stone weighing a ton. He is preparing an experiment to move a stone weighing five tons.
Transport by timber lines and bearings 

 Recently, researchers found many of the rocks form a small ball near a similar monument Stonehenge in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. The size of these balls about the size of cricket balls. In Scotland monuments, some of stone used even bigger than Stonehenge.
Based on these findings, the researchers concluded that the large stones in the monument may have been transported by stone balls.
So, the team from Exeter university began to carry out experiments.
In experiments, they built a wooden path that is placed on top of stone balls which function as bearings. When the giant stone was laid on it, it very easily could move that stone. Even students can move the giant stones that only with the encouragement of a finger.
Based on this experiment Prof. Bruce Bradley, director of experimental archeology from the University of Exeter predict if a giant rock may move as far as 10 miles in a day.
A very simple way and do not require high technology. Many believe if a team from the University of Exeter have solved the mystery of transporting the stones of Stonehenge.
Indeed, there is currently no that duplicate the complete manufacture of Stonehenge, but it is undeniable, with the method proposed by engineers like Wally, Nick, Garry or the University of Exeter, we have a new perspective on the ancient technology. At least, not something that is impossible to build megalithic monuments with equipment that is only available in the past.
Ancient peoples who lived thousands of years ago was not as stupid as we thought.
The team from Exeter university intends to carry out experiments in full scale in times to come. Thus, we can expect one by one the mysteries of Stonehenge will be solved perfectly. 


  1. Great Post thank you.
    Thought you might like my King Arthur's Summer Solstice at Stonehenge machinima film Bright Blessings, elf ~

  2. I believe you have to feel what the people who built stonhenge knew and drew their wisdom from when they built the henge in its various phases. The land was so different then, dramatic scapes of forests and marshland with some farms, hamlets and a few villages all under the control of one ruling family. They moved the stones on ice and snow, and built their slopes to position the lintels with snow. The big stones were set up on snow mounds and melted gently into place, only needing small guidance with wooden poles. The shapes of the sarsons is a clue, with the top halves shaped to give grip against ropes. That the various sarsons differ in shape is a clue to who was the master mason when they were cut, but they all have large clefts or shapes for ropes to pull against.
    The use of the weather as a natural helper seems to have been lost to modern man, with his need for speed. The solutions to cut to stones are detailed in Hannibal's journey across the Alps, when he used fire and water to heat and freeze boulders that broke them into stones small enough to be man handled out of his path.

    1. l also believe that the leaders who governed stone henge drew on medicinal wisdom for their own needs that by extension, helped lay people who would have paid for help and cures, which became a business in the same way that the sale of Christian relics did later. Also, that the term 'giant' is derived from the term 'big man', as it was spoken in the day, and is still used commonly in Scotland today, that describes a wise man or leader by ability and position rather than physical stature ( etymology).